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Apokyn (apomorphine) has some of the same effects as a chemical called dopamine, which occurs naturally in your body. Low levels of dopamine in the brain are associated with Parkinson's disease. Apokyn is used to treat "wearing-off" episodes (muscle stiffness, loss of muscle control) in people with advanced Parkinson's disease. Apokyn is injected under the skin. You should be shown how to use injections at home. Do not give yourself this medicine if you do not understand how to use the injection and properly dispose of used needles and syringes. Do not inject Apokyn into a vein.
Azilect(rasagiline)works by increasing the levels of certain chemicals in the brain. Azilect is used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease(stiffness, tremors, spasms, poor muscle control). Azilect is sometimes used with another medicine called levodopa.
Botox (onabotulinumtoxinA) is made from the bacteria that causes botulism. Botulinum toxin blocks nerve activity in the muscles. Botox is used to treat cervical dystonia (severe spasms in the neck muscles) in adults; muscle stiffness in the elbows, wrists, and fingers in adults and children 2 to 17 years of age with upper limb spasticity; and muscle stiffness in the ankles or toes in adults with lower limb spasticity. It is also used to treat severe underarm sweating (hyperhidrosis).
Botox is also used in adults to treat overactive bladder, and incontinence (urine leakage) caused by nerve disorders such as spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis.
Botox is also used in adults to prevent chronic migraine headaches in adults who have migraines for more than 15 days per month, each lasting 4 hours or longer. This medicine should not be used to treat a common tension headache.
Botox is also used to treat certain eye muscle conditions caused by nerve disorders in adults and children who are at least 12 years old. This includes uncontrolled blinking or spasm of the eyelids, and a condition in which the eyes do not point in the same direction.
Cogentin (benztropine mesylate) reduces the effects of certain chemicals in the body that may be unbalanced as a result of disease (such as Parkinson's), drug therapy, or other causes. Cogentin is used together with other medicines to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (muscle spasms, stiffness, tremors, poor muscle control).
Duopa (carbidopa/levodopa) is a combination medicine used to treat movement problems in people with advanced Parkinson's disease. Duopa reduces the "off time" effect associated with taking other medicines to treat Parkinson's symptoms. Duopa is a gel form of carbidopa and levodopa that is infused directly into the small intestine. Duopa is given with an infusion pump through a tube inserted into the wall of your stomach through a surgical incision called a "stoma" or a "port." You will need a surgical procedure to create your stoma. A special tube called a "PEG-J" tube, will be placed through the stoma and into your small intestine. This tube is attached to an infusion pump that will deliver Duopa into your body. Duopa comes in a plastic cassette that is attached to the infusion pump. Your care provider will program the pump and show you how to use it. Read all patient information, medication guides, and instruction sheets provided to you. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions. Abbvie also has a patient assistance program for assistance with the use of the pump.
Exelon (rivastigmine) is used to treat mild to moderate dementia caused by Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. Exelon improves the function of nerve cells in the brain. It works by preventing the breakdown of a chemical that is important for the processes of memory, thinking, and reasoning. People with dementia usually have lower levels of this chemical.
GOCOVRI (amantadine) is a prescription medicine containing amantadine. Gocovri extended-release capsules are used to treat dyskinesia (sudden uncontrolled movements) and “off” time in people with Parkinson's disease who are treated with levodopa.
Acorda Therapeutics, Inc.
Inbrija (levodopa inhalation powder) is a prescription medicine used for the return of Parkinson’s symptoms (known as OFF episodes) in people treated with carbidopa-levodopa medicines. Inbrija does not replace regular carbidopa-levodopa medicines. Inbrija is for oral inhalation only. Do not swallow or open Inbrija capsules.
Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc
Ingrezza (valbenazine) blocks certain chemicals in the body that may be involved with involuntary muscle movement. Ingrezza is used to treat symptoms of tardive dyskinesia, a nervous system disorder. Tardive dyskinesia causes repetitive uncontrolled muscle movements, usually in the face (chewing, lip smacking, frowning, tongue movement, blinking or eye movement).
Ingrezza is not a permanent cure for this condition.
Mirapex (pramipexole) has some of the same effects as a chemical called dopamine, which occurs naturally in your body. Low levels of dopamine in the brain are associated with Parkinson's disease. Mirapex is used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as stiffness, tremors, muscle spasms, and poor muscle control. Mirapex is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS). Immediate-release tablet (Mirapex) is approved to treat either Parkinson symptoms or RLS. The extended-release tablet (Mirapex ER) is only approved to treat Parkinson symptoms. Parkinson's and RLS are two separate disorders. Having one of these conditions will not cause you to have the other condition.
Myobloc (Myobloc), also called botulinum toxin type B, is made from the bacteria that causes botulism. Botulinum toxin blocks nerve activity in the muscles, causing a temporary reduction in muscle activity. Myobloc is used to treat cervical dystonia (severe spasms in the neck muscles). Myobloc may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Neupro (rotigotine) has some of the same effects as a chemical called dopamine, which occurs naturally in your body. Low levels of dopamine in the brain are associated with Parkinson's disease. Neupro skin patches are used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as stiffness, tremors, muscle spasms, and poor muscle control. Neupro is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Neupro skin patches come with patient instructions for safe and effective use. Follow these directions carefully. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions.
The exact way Northera works in treating symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension (nOH) is unknown. However, Northera is converted to norepinephrine inside the body. One of the effects is a small and temporary increase in norepinephrine, a chemical that, among other functions, helps to regulate blood pressure. Northera is used to treat symptoms of dizziness, lightheadedness, or the “feeling that you are about to black out”. These symptoms occur due to a condition called neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, which is a sustained drop in blood pressure when changing positions or standing. Northera is for use in adults with conditions of the nervous system that can cause low blood pressure when standing (such as Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, autonomic failure, and others). Northera is usually taken 3 times per day, as follows: First dose in the morning when you wake up; second dose at mid-day; third dose in the late afternoon or at least 3 hours before you go to bed. The timing of your doses is very important in helping to maintain a healthy blood pressure while you are taking this medicine. Follow your doctor's dosing instructions very carefully.
NOURIANZ is a prescription medicine used with levodopa and carbidopa to treat adults with Parkinson’s disease (PD) who are having “off” episodes. Nourianz is the first and only medicine for PD that targets the adenosine A2A receptor. By blocking this receptor, Nourianz can alter the release of neurotransmitters — chemical substances produced in response to nerve signals that allow nerve cells to communicate — in the basal ganglia, in this way modulating motor activity.
NUEDEXTA® is approved for the treatment of PseudoBulbar Affect (PBA). PBA is a medical condition that causes involuntary, sudden, and frequent episodes of crying and/or laughing in people living with certain neurologic conditions or brain injury. PBA episodes are typically exaggerated or don't match how the person feels. PBA is distinct and different from other types of emotional changes caused by neurologic disease or injury.
Nuplazid (pimavanserin) is an antipsychotic medicine that works by changing the actions of chemicals in the brain. Nuplazid is used to treat hallucinations and delusions caused by psychosis that is related to Parkinson's disease. Nuplazid is the only medication approved by the FDA at this time to treat Hallucinations and Delusions caused by psychosis related to PD.
ONGENTYS (opicapone) is a unique once-daily, oral, peripheral, selective and reversible catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor approved by the FDA as an add-on treatment to levodopa/carbidopa in patients with Parkinson's disease experiencing "off" episodes. ONGENTYS inhibits the COMT enzyme, which breaks down levodopa, making more levodopa available to reach the brain.
OSMOLEX ER (amantadine) is a once-daily, extended-release formulation of amantadine immediate release that works on the dopamine and glutamate brain chemical systems. The tablet consists of an immediate-release outer layer and an extended-release inner core. OSMOLEX ER is indicated for the treatment of Parkinson's motor symptoms (tremor, slowness and stiffness).
Requip (ropinirole) is a dopaminergic agent and it has some of the same effects as dopamine, a naturally occurring chemical found in your body. Low levels of dopamine in the brain are associated with Parkinson's disease. Requip is used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease (stiffness, tremors, muscle).
RYTARY® (carbidopa and levodopa) extended-release capsules is a prescription medicine for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms. RYTARY can reduce “off” time and increase “on” time without troublesome dyskinesia. Every RYTARY capsule contains a combination of time-released beads: immediate-release beads that start working quickly, and extended-release beads that deliver levodopa more slowly. RYTARY was shown to have a safety profile similar to immediate-release carbidopa/levodopa (IR CD/LD). In a clinical study, the most common side effects occurring in at least 5% of people treated with RYTARY and at a higher rate than IR CD/LD were nausea and headache.
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
Sinemet (carbidopa/levodopa) is a combination medication used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease or Parkinson-like symptoms (such as shakiness, stiffness, difficulty moving). Parkinson's disease is thought to be caused by too little of a naturally occurring substance (dopamine) in the brain. Levodopa changes into dopamine in the brain, helping to control movement. Carbidopa prevents the breakdown of levodopa in the bloodstream so more levodopa can enter the brain. Carbidopa can also reduce some of levodopa's side effects such as nausea and vomiting.
Stalevo is a combination drug consisting of levodopa, carbidopa, and entacapone. Levodopa is converted to a chemical called dopamine (DOE pa meen) in the brain. Symptoms of Parkinson's disease may be caused by low levels of dopamine in the brain. Carbidopa helps prevent the breakdown of levodopa before it can reach the brain and take effect. Entacapone increases levels of levodopa in the body. The combination of carbidopa, entacapone, and levodopa is used to treat Parkinson symptoms such as muscle stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control.
Xadago (safinamide) is monoamine oxidase inhibitor type B (MAO-B). This medicine works by allowing a chemical called dopamine (DOE pa meen) to work for longer periods of time in the brain. Low levels of dopamine in the brain are associated with Parkinson's disease. Xadago is given with levodopa and carbidopa to treat "wearing-off" episodes (muscle stiffness, loss of muscle control) in people with Parkinson's disease.
Xeomin (incobotulinumtoxinA, also called botulinum toxin type A), is made from the bacteria that causes botulism. Botulinum toxin blocks nerve activity in the muscles, causing a temporary reduction in muscle activity. Xeomin injection is used to treat cervical dystonia (severe spasms in the neck muscles), or muscle stiffness in the elbows, wrists, fingers, ankles, or toes. Xeomin is also used to treat certain eye muscle conditions caused by nerve disorders. This includes uncontrolled blinking or spasm of the eyelids, and a condition in which the eyes do not point in the same direction. Xeomin is also used to treat chronic drooling (sialorrhea).